Module 4 – Bread

a.  Properties of a standard loaf (white and brown): 

i.  Freshly baked 

ii.  Soft 

iii.  Packaged in a branded bag 

b.  Equipment: 

i.  Scale 

ii.  Scaling Bowls: 

1.  Flour scaling bowl 

2.  Premix scaling bowl (small) 

3.  Dry Yeast scaling dish (very small) 

4.  Measuring Jug / Bowl (to measure water) 

 iii.  Mixer: 

        1.  Planetary Mixer (longer mix time) or Spiral Mixer (shorter more aggressive mixing)
        2.   Planetary Mixing Bowl 
        3.   Planetary Dough Hook 
        4.   Spiral Mixer (containing the bowl and the spiral hook)

iv.  Table & Plastic Sheet (for resting) 

v.  Thermometer (to check the air, water and dough temperature) 

vi.  Brush:  A silicone brush needs to be used to be used to apply the pan release. 

vii.  Timer 

viii.  Bread tins 

ix.  Proofer 

x.  Bread tin lids 

xi.  Oven 

xii.  Knockout Table 

xiii.  Cooling rack 

xiv.  Slicer 

c.  Bread Ingredients: 

i.  Wheat Bread Flour, Premix (5%), Dry yeast, Water, Pan release, Bread bags, clip-locks 

d.  Bread Recipes: 

i.  Below is an ‘Everyday White Loaf’ recipe that shows that to make the 700g loaf, you will need a dough weight of 770g.  This recipe also refers to a sub-recipe (below) that has some important properties to take note of: 

        1.  All ingredients of bread will always be a ratio of the flour.
        2.   The liquid ratios will change depending on the type of flour being used.  ie:  Brown flour will absorb more liquid than what white flour will absorb.
        3.   The flour weight is always regarded to be 100% (of itself).  Using the sub-recipe as the example from below: 

a.  The water is 60% of the flour weight.  Calculated by 601g (flour) /100 X 60 = 360 grams (not grams) 

b.  The dry yeast is 1.7% of the flour weight.  Calculated by 601g (flour) /100 X 1.7 = 10 grams 

c.  The premix is 5% of the flour weight.  Calculated by 601g (flour) /100 X 5 = 30 grams 


EVERYDAY WHITE 700g (Recipe): 

 SR:  WHITE BREAD SB (Sub-Recipe): 


   e.  Manufacture Process (generic): 

i.  Scaling: 

      1.  ‘Scale up’ the ingredients according to recipe 
      2.   Check air temperature with a thermometer in facility 
      3.   Check water temperature with a thermometer in facility 
      4.   It is vitally important that the dough temperature achieved after mixing must be between 28 degrees – 30 degrees Celsius.  This will ensure that the dough will proof within a 45 – 55 minute time period.

a.  If dough is less than 28 degrees Celsius, the proofing time will increase and the impact of the yeast will be negatively affected.  If dough is more than 30 degrees Celsius, the dough will proof too quickly and the yeast will be spent.   

b.  If the dough temperature is not between 28 degrees – 30 degrees Celsius, this will negatively impact the bread quality. 

ii.  Mixing: 

      1.  Switch on the proofer and the temperature should be 30 – 35 degrees Celsius with humidity at about 85% – 90%. 
      2.   Place dry scaled ingredients in the mixing bowl
      3.   Mix dry ingredients on slow speed to blend together 
      4.   Slowly stream in the scaled water into the dry ingredients allowing time for it to be fully absorbed.  (Don’t put the water all at once!) 
      5.   Continue mixing on slow speed for 2 – 3 minutes until the dough is well formed.  
      6.   The increase the mixing speed to ‘fast’ and continue mixing until a fully developed dough is achieved. 

a.  To test the consistency of the dough is correct, perform a ‘window-pane test’.  This is done by taking a small piece of dough and slowly ‘pulling it apart to ensure that it doesn’t tear but rather stretches into almost a ‘see-through’ window

b.  Once it achieves this state, dust a stainless-steel table with a light dusting of flour 

iii.  Resting. 

      1.  Then remove the dough from the machine bowl and place it onto the clean stainless-steel table. 
      2.   Cover with a plastic sheet to prevent the dough from ‘skinning’. 

iv.  Scaling. 

      1.  After resting, divide the dough into the correct size dough pieces.  (eg:  Bread would be in 770g pieces) 

v.  Moulding. 

      1.  Mould the dough into loaf shape getting it ready to insert into the pans. 

vi.  Panning. 

      1.  Very lightly apply pan release to the inside of the bread tins (this prevents the bread from sticking to the pans.
      2.   Very lightly apply pan release to the inside of the bread tin lids (if making a sandwich loaf)
      3.   Place the moulded dough pieces ‘seam-side’ down into the bread tins. 

vi.  Proofing. 

      1.  Turn on the oven and preheat to 190 degrees Celsius.  (Get the oven ready) 
      2.   Place all of the loaded bread tins into the pre-heated proofer.
      3.   Set the proofer timer for 35 minutes 
      4. Close the proofer door and check the dough height after 35 minutes: 

a.  High loaf slightly above the top of the pan

b.  Sandwich loaf will be about 3 centimetres below the top of the pan 

5.  Continue proofing until these levels are reached 

a.  Sandwich loaves will require lids 

b.  High loaf loaves will not require lids 

6.  Remove bread tins from proofer 

viii.  Baking. 

      1.  Place the bread tins VERY gently into the preheated oven. 
      2.   Set the timer to 30 minutes 
      3.   Check that the loaf is fully baked after about 25 minutes.  (You can open the door if you have to in order to look) 
      4.   Once baked, remove the bread tins from the oven and de-pan using the knock-out table. 

ix.  Cooling & packaging process. 

      1.  Immediately place the bread onto cooling racks allowing them to have space between loaves 
      2.   Avoid allowing loaves to sweat.  Don’t leave them on the table and don’t allow them to touch each other whilst cooling. 
      3.   When the loaf reaches the core temperature of 28 degrees Celsius, it can be sliced and packaged without the loaf being compromised or damaged.